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Contaminants And Wiping Theory-Particle adhesion mechanisms

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Contaminants And Wiping Theory-Particle adhesion mechanisms

Contaminants And Wiping Theory-Particle adhesion mechanisms


Cleanroom contaminants

Sources of contamination

Particle adhesion mechanisms

Contaminant removal methods

Considerations for contaminant removal

Choosing the right tools and methods

Myesde Cleanroom Wipes


Particle adhesion mechanisms

There are four mechanisms that hold particles to a surface:


adhesion force from gravity depends only on the mass of the particle

for particles less than 100 microns in size, gravity is not the strongest force holding the particles to a surface

Electrostatic forces

electrostatic forces can both attract and hold a particle to a surface

electrostatic forces decrease with increased humidity

electrostatic forces may be minimized through use of static elimination devices

electrostatic forces are not the most dominant forces holding a particle to a surface

van der Waals (atomic) forces

caused by attraction of unevenly grouped electrons in the atoms of the particle and the surface also called “intermolecular” forces

these forces come into play when the particle is very near the surface

van der Waals forces are independent of humidity and static

one of the two most dominant forces holding small particles to a surface


Hydroscopic, or capillary forces

also called capillary forces

caused by thin liquid layer between a particle and a surface

adhesion increases with contact area of particle with surface - large, flat particles, and long thin fibers adhere more strongly

 capillary force increases with humidity or the presence of other liquid vapor on the surface




 Particles are held to surfaces by a variety of forces

 These forces vary according to many factors including particle size and shape, surface texture, and humidity

 Small particles are more tightly held than large particles

 Removal of small particles requires force greater than that holding the particles


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